Authors: Klaus W. Neuhaus, Melanie Liebi, Simone Stauffacher, Sigrun Eick, Adrian Lussi
Journal: Journal of Endodontics
Keywords: irrigation, sonic activation, PUI, irrigation activation, EDDY, disinfection, curved canals
Passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) is the most widespread method used to activate irrigation solutions. Concerns have been raised that PUI is less effective in curved root canals and is not passive at all. Our aim was to compare a novel passive sonic irrigation (PSI) device (6000 Hz) with PUI and manual irrigation (MI) with respect to their efficiency in removing different endodontic microorganisms from curved and straight root canals.
We performed 2 experiments as follows. In a 3-day infection model, we included 8 groups of single or dual microbial species that were rinsed with 0.9% sodium chloride using PSI, PUI, or MI. Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted after incubation, and log10 transformations were performed for statistical comparisons. In a 21-d infection model, we tested the same irrigation protocols on 4 groups of microorganisms and used 1.5% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigant. Infection control samples were taken at day 0, 3, 5, and 7 after treatment and were subsequently reincubated.
Using sodium chloride as an irrigant, the amount of reduction in CFUs compared with the negative control was approximately 3 log10 units for PSI at 6000 Hz, 2 log10 units for PUI, and 1 log10 unit for MI. PSI reduced the microorganism CFUs significantly better than PUI. Using sodium hypochlorite led to a significant reduction in microorganism CFUs even with MI. After 3 days, compared with MI, microorganism regrowth significantly reduced after PSI and PUI treatment, but in these groups, in at least half of the samples, microorganisms were detectable after 7 days.
PSI at 6000 Hz might be at least equal to PUI with respect to reduction of the microbial load in curved and straight root canals.